In our Annual Energy Outlook 2023 (AEO2023), natural gas production from oil formations, known as associated natural gas, grows across most cases through 2050, continuing a long-term trend. In the AEO2023 Reference case, we project that associated natural gas will account for approximately 20% of total U.S. natural gas production over that period, and we examined cases in AEO2023 where it makes up as much as 32% of production.